The biologist of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan Elizabeth Tibbetts has discovered that paper wasps (Fuscatus polistes) are measured across the face. Or, exactly, through black spots that stand out on the yellow of the face. The more irregular these spots are, the wasps interpret that the interfect is more dangerous, more aggressive and strong.
Knowing in advance that you should not face a wasp that is much more aggressive than you, evolutionarily, makes a lot of sense, because that way you avoid wasting time and energy (and lives) barrenly. However, if the irregularly painted face does not respond to a more belligerent attitude and that is discovered by the other wasps, the lantern is heavily sanctioned.
To carry out their experiment, Tibbetts and his collaborators painted additional spots on some female wasps in full competition to choose the founder of a new nest. What they verified is that the false winners who had false spots on their face finally received more attacks and more fierce from the strongest ones. for having transgressed the rules.
According to the authors, the flexibility of the evolution of facial learning in wasps is surprising, and suggests that specialized knowledge can be a generalized adaptation to facilitate complex behavioral tasks such as individual recognition.